Posts Tagged kids books

STEM Tuesday– Geology — Writing Tips & Resources

STEM Tuesday

Layering It On

This month’s #STEM Tuesday book list focuses on geology, which Merriam-Webster defines as “a science that deals with the history of the earth and its life especially as recorded in rocks.”

In reading this month’s books, I was struck by all the images of rock layers, including this one from Jen Swanson’s OUTDOOR SCHOOL: Rock, Fossil, and Gem Hunting.

An image of rock layers

I learned that every layer gives us a piece of  information about the Earth’s history. Some layers have fossils revealing how long ago the layer formed. Others contain rocks and sediment that tell us if water was involved in deposition. Taken together, these layers help us see the big picture about Earth’s history.

Text Features — A Book’s Layers

Books are layered just like the Earth. Text features are the layers that help readers understand the book’s content. These text features include elements like captions, graphics, and labels. Let’s take a look at the graphic below from from DIRTMEISTER’S NITTY GRITTY PLANET EARTH by Steve Tomecek to learn more about text features.

  • Table of contents – Normally found at the beginning of the book, a table of contents is like a map. It tells you the topics the book will cover and how to find them by listing the page numbers. 
  • Subheadings – Often nonfiction chapters are carved up into smaller chunks, each with its own subheading. These subheadings tell you exactly what the next section of text is about.
  • Illustrations/photographs – You know that saying, “A picture’s worth a thousand words?” Just think how much easier it is to show you the tectonic plates in the image above, rather than trying to describe what them using text. Illustrations and photographs convey information that may be more difficult to describe in the text.
  • Captions – These are most often found under an image. They normally are a sentence or two long.
  • Labels – These are snippets of information placed on an image itself. Labels call out parts or features of an image, like the labels I’ve used in this graphic to call out the various text features.
  • Sidebars – Sidebars have additional information related to the main part of the text.
  • Graphics like graphs and charts– These organize information visually. They are especially helpful for showing processes or giving meaning to numbers.
  • Maps- Show you important locations mentioned in the text.
  • Special print (typography) – Sometimes print is bolded, like glossary words the author wants you to know. Italics and underlines provide emphasis.
  • Index – Found at the end of a book, an index is alphabetized, helping you quickly look up ideas, concepts, and names and find which pages will tell you more.
  • Glossary – Gives definitions for bolded words in the text. Think of it like a little dictionary in the book.

Teaching About Text Features

Have students look at some of the books on this month’s Geology list, then:

  • Consider creating a bingo card of text features for students to cross off as they find them.
  • Ask: Did students find any other text features not mentioned? How do they add to their understanding of the book?
  • Without reading the main text, have students look only at the text features and make some guesses about what they believe the main text is about.
  • Challenge students to incorporate text features in their next piece of informational writing.

Kirsten Williams Larson author

Kirsten W. Larson


Kirsten used to work with rocket scientists at NASA. Now she writes books for curious kids. She is the author of WOOD, WIRE, WINGS: EMMA LILIAN TODD INVENTS AN AIRPLANE, illustrated by Tracy Subisak (Calkins Creek, February 2020), A TRUE WONDER: The Comic Book Hero Who Changed Everything (Clarion, Sept. 28, 2021), illustrated by Katy Wu, and THE FIRE OF STARS: The Life and Brilliance of the Woman Who Discovered What Stars Are Made Of, illustrated by Katherine Roy (Chronicle, Spring 2022), as well as 25 nonfiction books for the school and library market. Find her at or on Twitter and Instagram @KirstenWLarson.

STEM Tuesday — Geology– In the Classroom

STEM Tuesday


This month we’re going to dig into some great books about GEOLOGY! These books will help students learn more about Earth, its surface, structure, and processes. They are a great starting point for different activities and discussions in the classroom. Are you ready to get a little dirty?

Dirtmeister’s Nitty Gritty Planet Earth: All About Rocks, Minerals, Fossils, Earthquakes, Volcanoes, And Even Dirt! by Steve Tomecek
A comprehensive book about geology beginning with the formation of our planet. Chapters cover minerals, earthquakes and volcanoes, plate tectonics, the rock cycle, old dead things (aka fossils) and the importance of soils. Next Gen STEM standards listed at the back.

Classroom activity: Lead a discussion about the rock cycle. How are rocks recycled to create new rocks? Have students create a rock cycle diagram to show what they know. In small groups, students can use wax crayons to create a demonstration of the rock cycle. At the beginning, the crayons represent igneous rock. Next, shave the crayons to simulate weathering. Students can then use the shavings to demonstrate the processes of erosion and deposition. To simulate rock pieces being deposited underground, place some of the crayon shavings in a packet of aluminum foil. Students can then use heat and pressure from their hands to demonstrate the formation of sedimentary rocks and metamorphic rocks. What needs to happen for these “rocks” to become igneous rocks?

Older Than Dirt by Don Brown
Before dirt there was rock. Before rock there was magma. Before that there was – a BIG Bang! This book presents the history of our planet in graphic panels narrated by a couple of wise-cracking characters. They explain tectonic plates, terraforming through volcanic action and faults, and warn that geological activity continues to change the landscape.

Classroom activity: Earth’s surface is made of large pieces of crust called tectonic plates. Throughout Earth’s history, these plates have slowly moved to create the continents, islands, and mountains that we know today. Have students investigate how mountains form and the role of tectonic plates in their formation. Students can create a model or diagram showing what they have learned.

The Scientists Behind Earth’s Processes by Andrew Solway
An evaluation of twelve female and male scientists (1700’s to present day) whose theories and discoveries informed and influenced our knowledge of the Earth. From dating the Earth to climate changes, fossils to earthquakes, continental drift to mapping the ocean, and predicting the weather to exploring space. Includes an interactive timeline showing how they influenced and built off each other’s theories and a “find out more” section.

Classroom activity: Have students choose a geology pioneer to research. What has their chosen pioneer contributed to the science of geology and our understanding of Earth? Have students work together to create a living timeline of geology’s most important discoveries and scientific achievements.

Looking to get even deeper in the dirt? Browse through the pages of these activity books and choose a few to do in class or at home!

Eyewitness Explorer: Rock and Fossil Hunter by Ben Morgan







Geology Lab for Kids: 52 Projects to Explore Rocks, Gems, Geodes, Crystals, Fossils, and Other Wonders of the Earth’s Surface, by Garret Romaine





A Project Guide to Rocks and Minerals (Earth Science Projects for Kids) by Claire O’Neal






Carla Mooney loves to explore the world around us and discover the details about how it works. An award-winning author of numerous nonfiction science books for kids and teens, she hopes to spark a healthy curiosity and love of science in today’s young people. She lives in Pennsylvania with her husband, three kids, and dog. When not writing, she can often be spotted at a hockey rink for one of her kids’ games. Find her at, on Facebook @carlamooneyauthor, or on Twitter @carlawrites.