Three-Act Structure: My Writer’s Compass

Understanding three-act structure in storytelling isn’t just for writers. In a writing workshop for a crew of fifth-graders, I presented it as a framework for analyzing novels, plays, movies, and picture books with plots—anything with a story arc. The kids got into it, applying it to their own favorite books and films.

That said, I find that three-act structure serves as a compass in my own creative writing. If I wander off in the weeds or lose the thread of the story or mangle a mixed metaphor, I can return to these pivotal plot points to recalibrate the way forward. It ain’t perfect but I find it elegant in its functionality, and for someone who has almost no sense of direction, like me, it helps fend off writer’s block. It offers steady reference points that point to where the story is going.

 

Back to Basics

So here’s a refresher course, as much for me as other readers and writers. Let’s start real basic:

BEGINNING, MIDDLE, END

Seriously, those are a story’s essential three parts whether it’s Click, Clack, Moo, Chicken Little, or Hamlet. Three-act structure helps define and refine this, expanding the story and managing its pace and flow.

ACT I

Exposition: As a rule, the very beginning introduces the central characters and gives us reasons to care.

The Catalyst or Inciting Event: This sets the story in motion. (In movies, it usually occurs 10 minutes in—check your watch!) If the catalyst doesn’t happen the story doesn’t happen.

ACT II

Turning Point 1: This event sends the action in a new direction. It makes clear what the main conflict is. The plot, or storyline, now gets more and more complicated as the protagonists face obstacle after obstacle.

Halftime Smooching: About halfway through the story or movie, there usually comes a period of calm. Now the main characters have time to reflect on what has happened and plan what to do next. Sometimes there is kissing!

ACT III

Turning Point 2: Like Turning Point #1, this shoots the action in a new direction. Everything now accelerates toward the climax.

Climax: This is the BIG MOMENT when the central conflict of the story is resolved: The protagonists win, the antagonists lose, the sweethearts fall in love, etc.

Denouement: This answers any remaining questions and shows characters reacting to how things turned out.

 

The Three-Act Structure of an Old Favorite

Yada, yada, right? Example please! For the sake of familiarity, let’s use a story many of us know and dissect its three-act structure: Star Wars—A New Hope.

ACT I

Exposition: We are introduced to Princess Leia, Darth Vader, and some kid named Luke Skywalker.

The Catalyst or Inciting Event: Luke buys the droids C3-PO and R2-D2. If he doesn’t get those droids, he never meets Obi-Wan Kenobi, never leaves his home planet, never learns about The Force, never becomes a Jedi.

ACT II

Turning Point #1: The heroes discover the Death Star and the Millennium Falcon is captured with a tractor beam. They also learn Princess Leia is being held prisoner there and plot to break her out. The main conflict and what’s at stake becomes crystal clear. They must get the plans for the Death Star to the Rebellion or all is lost!

Halftime Smooching: There isn’t much of a break for reflecting or kissing in A New Hope. Halftime Smooching fans have to wait for The Empire Strikes Back.

ACT III

Turning Point #2: The Death Star tracks the Millennium Falcon to the Rebel base. The Rebels, including Luke Skywalker, launch a desperate attack to try to destroy the Death Star before it obliterates the moon where the base is located. All looks lost when …

Climax: Luke trusts the Force. At the very last second, he drops two torpedoes into a small thermal exhaust port … and … and … BOOM! Conflict resolved: Protagonists win, antagonists need to go build a new Death Star.

Denouement: This is very short and weird in the movie. The rebels celebrate and Luke and Han Solo get medals. (Hurray! Hey! What about Chewbacca?!)

Whether by Nature or Nurture, three-act structure seems to appeal to our story-loving minds across cultures. For writers, it can be a reassuring road map that can guide us true from first draft to The End.

Sean McCollum
Midwestern country boy who left home and kept going. Now a digital nomad and writer for youth and educational publishers. His latest is the MG basketball novel 1 for All (Brattle Publishing, 2020).
1 Comment
  1. Love your post and the illustration of your point with Star Wars. May the force be with us. But I would argue that Turning Point 1 is when Luke returns to find his uncle’s farm destroyed, thus sending his life in a new direction. It seems to me.

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